Facility owners should have a different outlook on the value of BIM for their projects. The BIM Project Execution Guide is focused on streamlining the planning and implementation of BIM use within one capital facility or project. The value of BIM tools and processes for owners can be very much attuned to the tools and enabled processes within a given project, or it can differ with a focus on the facility operations and related data after complete. The BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners seeks to facilitate an owner’s review and planning for the proper investment in BIM in line with the specific project focal points or strategic business interests, in addition to improving the value in delivering a single facility.
According to Kincaid (1994), facilities management was developed from three main areas of management: property management (real estate), property operations and maintenance, and office administration. These areas support an organisation’s main activities where each one requires different abilities and has different impacts inside the organisation Its growth has thrived due to the changing function of the workplace. In the past, companies were used to producing the same goods in the same way for a long time. At that time, when the work space was no longer suited to an organisation’s requirements, it was simply a matter of moving. However, as workplace needs evolved, companies realised that the workspace needs to adapt to the processes and culture of the organisation (Alexander, 1996). This prompted the need for a specialist manager, the facilities manager (Barrett, 1995).
Three Main Factors
It can be summarised that the 3 main factors that drove the development of facilities management were: (1) Cost, (2) Quality, and (3) Information Technology. Therefore, if properly applied, facilities management has a direct input into the commercial survival and prosperity of any organisation (Park, 1994). the British Standards Institute (2007) defined FM as: “Facilities management is the integration of processes within an organisation to maintain and develop the agreed services which support and improve the effectiveness of its primary activities” (BSI, 2007). Similarly, the Institute of Asset Management (IAM) PAS 55-1:2008 defines asset management as “the systematic and coordinated activities and practices through which an organization optimally and sustainably manages its assets and asset systems, their associated performance, risks and expenditures over their life cycles for the purpose of achieving its organizational strategic plan” (BSI, 2008).
Here, emphasis is placed on the integration of different horizontal functions (such as finance and maintenance) or vertical ones (e.g. strategy and operations). In both, the emphasis on “integration” moves the attention from specific activities to an overall system that contributes to the business. That is not to say that everything counts towards improved efficiency and effectiveness to the same extent, but to a certain extent that cannot be neglected. For this reason, in this Report, the definition of facilities management adopted by the BSI (2007) is adopted.
These, amongst others, are major determinants in making the decision for the option of facilities management service provision, providers and its structure. Considering that the running of an organisation involves complex coordinated processes and activities it is necessary to take an integrated view of facilities management that entails many objectives including:
- Support people in their work and in other activities
- Enable individual well-being
- Enable the organization to deliver effective and responsive services
- Sweat the physical asset i.e. make them highly cost-effective
- Allow for flexibility and change in the use of space
- Provide competitive advantage to the organisation’s core business
- Enhance the organisational culture and image
(Atkin and Brooks, 2009)
With regards to structure, Barrett and Baldry (2003) consider a generic framework that encompasses four primary functions: facility planning; building operations and maintenance; real estate and building construction; and general office services (Table 2).